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Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups

Posted 22 May 2011 at 08:14 AM by soleilmavis
Updated 20 Jun 2011 at 03:39 AM by soleilmavis

Abstract:
Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups lived around Shandong Peninsula in Neolithic China; they built one of the most important Neolithic cultures – Dong-Yi culture which had greatly influenced ancient China. Later Di-Qiang culture also had elements of Dong-Yi culture.
This article briefly introduced certain historical records of the Dong-Yi ethnic groups; their wheat cultivating history; their Caucasoid race characteristics; their bird worship totems; their relations with other ethnic groups; Dong-Yi culture; and their migrations.
From this article we have a clear view of Dong-Yi ethnic groups. They built one of the most advanced cultures in Neolithic Shandong which greatly influenced ChinaNeolithic cultures. They came from Middle East and had Caucasoid racial characteristics; worshipped bird’s totems and cultivated wheat; they were also ancestors of the American Indians and Polynesian people.
Key words: Dong-Yi; Dong-Yi Culture; Neolithic Shandong Peninsula; Prehistoric American Indians; Polynesian;



1. Introduction
Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups lived around Shandong Peninsula in Neolithic China. They came from Middle East with Caucasoid race characteristics and bird worship totems.
They brought wheat to China and widely cultivated wheat in Shandong Peninsula 4500 years ago.
They built one of the most important Neolithic cultures – Dong-Yi culture which had greatly influenced ancient China. Later Di-Qiang culture also had elements of Dong-Yi culture.
Dong-Yi culture which correlated to five evolutionary phases: Houli culture (6400-5700BCE); Beixin culture (5300-4100BCE); Dawenkou culture (4100-2600BCE); Longshan culture (3200-1900BCE); Yueshi culture (2000-1600BCE), first located in Shandong Peninsula, and later spread out to the lower reaches of the Yellow and Huai Rivers.
This article briefly introduces the historical records of Dong-Yi ethnic groups; their wheat cultivating history; their Caucasoid race characteristics; their Bird worship totems; their relations with other ethnic groups; Dong-Yi culture; and their migrations.
The Bible used the phrase "the ends of the Earth" many times. “The ends of the Earth as so described” included: The Easternmost Place in Shandong Peninsula of China; The Westernmost Place in West America; The Southernmost Place in Australia and New Zealand; The Northernmost Place near the Arctic Circle.
Dong-Yi ethnic groups moved to lands at the regions we call the ends of the Earth, and built great cultures during the Neolithic Age.
DNA researches have proved that Prehistory American Indians (Amerind) and Polynesian people migrated from East Asia. We assert that the Prehistory Amerind were a hybridization of Dong-Yi ethnic groups and Mongoloid racial stock. Prehistory Polynesian people were hybridization and mixing of Dong-Yi ethnic groups with various other races.
Prehistory Amerind and Polynesian people had bird worship totem cultures, which are the same as with Dong-Yi ethnic group’s religious practices.
From this article, we have a clear view of Dong-Yi ethnic groups. They built one of the most advanced cultures in Neolithic Shandong which greatly influenced China Neolithic cultures. They came from Middle East and had Caucasoid race characteristics; worshipped bird’s totems and cultivated wheat; they were also ancestors of American Indians and Polynesian people.
2. Historical Records of Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups
2.1 Historical Records of Yi
The Shuowen Jiezi character dictionary (121 BCE) defined the Chinese character(Yi) which consisted of "big" and "bow", as (1) "level; peaceful”; (2) “people of eastern regions".
The earliest records of Yi were inscribed on oracle bones dating from the late Shang Dynasty (1600–1046BCE). The Shang Oracle bones recorded a hostile country written as Ren-fang 人方 or Shi-fang 尸方 located east of Shang Dynasty. We assert that the Ren- fang were Dong-Yi.
Dong-Yi officially appeared on the Bronze inscriptions of the West Zhou Dynasty (1046–771BCE). Dong-Yi ethnic groups were main hostiles of the Zhou Dynasty (1046–256BCE).
<Hou Han Shu: Dong-Yi> recorded: There were nine ethnic groups of Yi, (Nine meant Many Different Kinds of Yi). They were called: Quan-Yi畎夷 (犬戎), Yu-Yi于夷 (古越人), Fang-Yi方夷, Huang-Yi黄夷, Bai-Yi白夷, Chi-Yi赤夷, Xuan-Yi玄夷, Feng-Yi凤夷, Yang-Yi阳夷. (In Chinese: 《后汉书东夷传》: 夷有九种,曰畎夷、于夷、方夷、黄夷、白夷、赤夷、玄夷、凤夷、阳夷。)
Literature describing a pre-Xia Dynasty period did not use the character Yi. As for the Xia Dynasty, some groups of people were referred to as the Yi. For example, "Yu Gong" of the Classic of History called people in Qingzhou and Xuzhou as LaiYi, YuYi and HuaiYi.
2.2 Lai-Yi
‘The Records of the Grand Historian’ recorded: “(at early time of Zhou Dynasty, Emperor Wumade Lu Shang the duke of Qi in Yingqiu”; “Lai King fought with Lu Shang for Yingqiu”; “Because Zhou was just established, they could not have war in the frontier regions; Lai king fought with Lu Shang(Tai Gong) for territory of Qi”. (In Chinese :< 史记齐太公世家>周武王封师尚父子齐营丘 (今临淄地区)”; “莱侯来伐,与之争营丘”; “周初定,未能集远方,是以与太公争国”)
The last country of the Dong-Yi ethnic groups was ancient Lai in Shandong Peninsula. The Lai country was founded by the Lai-Yi ethnic group and used to be one of the four biggest ancient countries (Qi, 1046-221BCE; Lu, 1042-256BCE; Ju, 1046-431BCE; Lai,-567BCE) located in the Shandong Peninsula.
The ancient pre Qin dynasty nation of Qi eliminated and destroyed the Dong-Yi Lai nation completely in 567BCE. In that ancient war, the Lai king was killed; and the Lai capital was burned. The Lai culture was destroyed and Lai people were moved to Ni County (Teng Zhou of Shandong). (There was a village named Lai village).
2.3 The Name of Ancient Country Lai() came from Wheat
The name of the Country Lai () meant the country of people who planted wheat. In addition the oracle bones character Lai () was a Chinese hieroglyph; i.e. a Pictogram which looked like wheat. The original meaning was wheat.
The Chinese characters (Lai) and (Lai) were the same, (Lai) meant (young wheat) growing luxuriantly. The original meaning: Young wheat seedlings looked like young luxuriant grasses.
In Ancient Chinese Phonology system, (Lai) came from (Lai). The vowel rhyme of (Lai) and (Lai) could be transferred; these two Chinese characters were interchangeable. ‘ShiJing: XiaoYa: Nan Shan You Tai’ recorded: South Mountain had platform; North Mountain had wheat. (In Chinese: 南山有台, 北山有莱)
The Chinese character (Mai) consisted of (Lai) and (meant root or foot), meant (wheat) growing on the ground.
Many places in Shandong Peninsula had names with Chinese character Lai , they were connected with the old country called the Lai. Such as: Lai-Yang, Lai-Xi, Lai-Zhou, Peng-Lai, Lai-Shan, Lai-Wu, Jiao-Lai River, Lai River in Heze, Lai-Yan Qing-Shi Pass of Qi Great Wall.
There was a small village named Lai Mountain village in front of Lai Mountain (current name: Jing Qi Mountain) located in Liaoyang County for many centuries.
Barley was called Mu "" (or written as ""). Furthermore one has that the Shandong Peninsula was the birthplace of surname Mu (meant barley). It, barley cultivation, spread out over China after the Han Dynasty (202BCE-220ACE).
Many places in Shandong Peninsula had names with the Chinese character Mu : Mu-Ping, Xin-Mu, Mu Mountain in Anqiu, Mu-Wen River in Laiwu, Mu family Town in Weifang, Mu-Jia-Shao village in Shouguang, Mu family manor in Qixia.
Dong-Yi ethnic groups were the first groups who brought wheat to China and widely planted wheat in China. They named many places with Lai (meant: wheat) and Mu (meant: barley); they also named their country with Lai (meant: wheat).
3 Chinese Wheat and Barley came from Middle East
3.1 Millet and rice cultivating history in Neolithic China was much earlier than wheat history.
Geographic distribution areas of Wild Millet were worldwide, as an example the wild millet (Echinocloa muricata or Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.). This was found to be a native of Neolithic China.
From 20000-10000 years ago, millet was the main staple food in China; as of 14000 years ago, mankind mainly collected and lived off wild food.
Palaeolithic archaeological site of open camp (20000 years ago) in Linfin of Shanxi Province has been discovered with many stone rollers and querns, and also showing prehistoric evidence of Mankind's use of fire in Shanxi.
APalaeolithic archaeological site (28000 years ago) in Shuo county of Shanxi Province had many stone knives, serrated sickles, rollers and querns.
These two sites are clear evidence that mankind had been familiar with collection and processing of wild food during the Paleolithic Age.
As of about 11000 years ago, mankind in China started cultivating millet. Many China Neolithic archaeological sites have found evidence of cultivated millet: Ci Shan of Hebei Province (10300-7500 years ago); Da Di Wan culture (8200 years ago); Jian Village in Lin Tong of Shanxi Province (55005000 years ago). Main cultivated food of Da Wen Kou culture was also millet.
Rice cultivating history occurred earlier than the millet history in south China. We know that many Chinese Neolithic archaeological sites have recently discovered cultivated rice: among them, Dao county of Hunan Province (14000 years ago); Wan Nian County of Jiangxi Province (12000 years ago); and Ying De of Guangdong Province as of (11000-8000 years ago).
3.2 China Wheat and Barley cultivating history
The first domesticated crop is believed to have been einkorn wheat, a kind of nourishing grass adapted from a wild species of grass native to the Karacadag Mountains near Diyarbakir in southwest Turkey first cultivated around 11,000 years ago. Scientists deduced this fact by examining the DNA of modern strains of einkorn wheat and found that the modern einkorn wheat was more similar to einkorn wheat grown in the Karacadag Mountains than in other places. [Source: John Noble Wilford, New York Times, November 20, 1997] [1]
The world's first wheat, oats, barley and lentils evolved from wild plants found in Iraq. Seeds of 10,000-year-old cultivated wheat have been discovered at sites in Iraq and northern Syria.
Some scientists thought that definitely Ancient China did not have appropriate conditions for wild species hybridizing naturally and then evolving to Triticum aestivum L (wheat). They believed that wheat and barley came from the Middle East only. This was shown to be in error via the fact that the earliest Chinese cultivated wheat and barley was only found in late Neolithic archaeological sites. The earliest cultivated wheat in Neolithic China was found in the known archaeological site in Guan Miao Di of Shan County in Henan Province (7000 years ago). It means that wheat and barley had come to China at least 7000 years ago; i.e. much earlier than was initially supposed. In addition, also, scientists could not obtain significant evidence of cultivation of wheat and barley before 7000 years ago. That lack of cultivation of wheat and barley evidence was due since at that time, the temperature condition in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River were not suitable for growing wheat and barley.
In addition wheat and barley were not widely cultivated in Shandong Peninsula during 6000-5000 years ago. The reasons were as follows:
Climate warming was expected to result in rising sea level. However, the sea level was 120 m lower as of around 20,000 years ago. Temperature rose quickly as of about 20,000-6000 years ago. After the ice sheets began to melt and retreat, the sea level rose rapidly. By the mid-Holocene period, 6000 years ago, glacial melting had essentially ceased. (From NASA) [3]
As of 6000 years ago, the sea level near Shandong Peninsula was 2-5meters higher than today’s present sea level. A lot of dry lands of the present Shandong Peninsula were under the sea. 5500 years ago, also the sea level was 2-5 meters lower than present sea level (From Zhan Xitao) [2].
The Dong-Yi ethnic groups moved to west and north areas when the sea level was higher and slowly moved back to prior areas when sea level was lower. But during this period, the unsteady temperature levels created conditions which were not suitable for planting wheat and barley.
As of 5000 years ago, temperatures rose slowly. Sea level rose back up to the present level. The temperature in Shandong Peninsula then at the time became suitable for cultivating wheat and barley. Wheat and barley were widely cultivated in Shandong Peninsula during Long Shan culture (4500-3950 years ago).
With the migrations of the Dong-Yi ethnic groups and exchanging with other ethnic groups, cultivating wheat and barley had spread out to other places of Neolithic China.
Many Chinese archaeological sites have found traces of cultivated wheat: i.e. Shan County of Henan Province (7000 years ago); Jiaozuo County of Henan Province(4000 years ago); Diao Yu Tai in Bo County of Anhui Province (near Henan) (3000 years ago); and Min Le County of Gansu Province (5000 years ago)
It was clear that wheat and barley came from Middle East. Dong-Yi ethnic groups brought wheat and barley to east China and built new wheat and barley farming cultures in Shandong Peninsula.Later they also spread wheat and barley to other places in China.
4 The Ancestral worship totems of Dong-Yi people were bird-shaped.
4.1 Many prehistory archaeological remains in Shandong Peninsula discovered bird shaped art craft.
A Neolithic archaeological site in Beizhuang of Changdao in Shandong Peninsula (6500 years ago) discovered grey pottery GUI shaped of bird; prior archaeologists thought it was strong evidence that Dong-Yi ethnic groups worshipped bird totems.
4.2 “Shan Hai Jing” recorded many birds in Shandong Peninsula.
According to Shan Hai Jing, the ancient Shandong Peninsula was biologically a “bird heaven”. There were so many birds. Such as the following:
Qi-que, Chou-yu, San qing bird, Jiu-jiu, Luan bird, Huang bird, Qing bird, Lang bird, Xuan-bird, Yellow bird, Li-zhu, Yi bird ( In Chinese: 鬿雀, 犰狳, 三青鸟, 鸠久, 鸾鸟, 皇鸟, 青鸟, 琅鸟, 玄鸟, 黄鸟, 离朱, 翳鸟)
4.3 The priests of the Di-Jun Ethnic Groups were Dong-Yi people.
Initially Di-Jun ethnic groups built friendly relations with the Dong-Yi ethnic groups. They believed that Dong-Yi ethnic groups could predict the weather or good and bad luck. Di-Jun ethnic groups even regarded Dong-Yi ethnic groups as half human and half spirit. They invited Dong-Yi People to be their priests at their sacrificial altars.
‘Shan Hai Jing: Da Huang Dong Jing’ wrote: ‘There were birds bearing five colors, rotating and dancing, they were friends of Di-Jun. Di-Jun had two sacrificial altars; where colorful bird were its priests.’ (In Chinese: <大荒东经>: 有五采之鸟, 相乡弃沙。惟帝俊下友帝下两坛,采鸟是司). The birds bearing five colors were priests wearing bird feather clothes, looking like two birds. (This is not translation of Chinese, it is further explain of this paragraph)
4.4 Shan Hai Jing had many records of bird’s totems
Doing-Yi ethnic groups worshipped bird’s totems, and believed they could predict weather or good and bad luck. ‘Shan Hai Jing: East Mountain’ recorded many birds which could predict weather or good and bad luck, such as the following:
There were birds named Li-Hu in the Lu-Qi Mountain, these birds initially looked like Mandarin ducks with human feet; when they appeared, water and soil loss would occur. There were also birds named Jie-Gou in Yin Mountain, looked like mallards with rat tails; when they appeared, pestilence would happen. There were even birds which looked like chickens with rat hairs; when they appeared, severe drought would occur.
(In Chinese : <东山经>: 卢其之山……多鵹鹕, 其状如鸳鸯而人足……见则其国多土功。垔山……有鸟焉,其状如凫而鼠尾,善登木,其名曰絜钩,见则其国多疫。旬状之山……有鸟焉, 其状如鸡而鼠毛……见则其邑大旱).
5 Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups were Caucasoid People
Mr. Carleton S. Coon divided humanity into five races: Caucasoid race, Mongoloid race, Negroid race, Capoid race, Australoid race. [4]
The Caucasoid race is defined by the Compact Oxford English Dictionary of Current English as "relating to a broad division of humankind covering peoples from Europe, west Asia, and parts of India and North Africa" or "white-skinned; of European origin" or "relating to the region of the Caucasus in SE Europe".
This concept's existence is based upon the now disputed typological method of racial classification origin" or "relating to the region of the Caucasus in SE Europe".
In earlier biblical references Noah had three sons: Shem, Japheth, and Ham (The Bible).
The descendants of Japheth were maritime people, they were good at navigation. They spread out all over the continent of Europe to the western lands. They also spread out to North (Slavs in Russia), India and south Asia where were the tents of Shem (Genesis 9-27 .....May Japheth live in the tents of Shem....). They spread out to America (Genesis 9-27 May God extend the territory of Japheth....). The descendants of Japheth were the Caucasoid race.
The descendants of Ham spread out to the south to Africa. They also spread out over south Asia, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and Through Malay Archipelago (a bridge prepared by God); they arrived in Australia and New Zealand and small islands of The South Pacific Ocean. The descendants of Ham were Negroid race, Capoid race, and Australoid race.
The descendant of Shem spread out over all the Continent of Asia to north and east. They were partial Caucasoid raceand partial Mongoloid Race.
Caucasoid people from Shem and Caucasoid people from Japheth looked some what different. The future prehistory Dong-Yi ethnic groups belonged to Caucasoid people from Shem.
Dong-Yi ethnic groups had pronounced Caucasoid racial characteristics: i.e. they were very tall, with a high forehead, aquiline nose, pronounced facial whiskers, a beard, and bushy body hairs.
5.1 Archaeologists discovered Caucasoid race characteristics in Neolithic Shandong Peninsula
Scientists discovered that the Neolithic residents of the Shandong Peninsula and east China regions (including parts of Henan, Hebei or Jiangsu) came from the Middle East. And People had clear Caucasoid race characteristics in Neolithic Shandong Peninsula. [5]
In the archaeological sites of Beizhuang in Changdao of Shandong (about 6500 years ago), archaeologists discovered a pottery mask which had clear Caucasoid race characteristics. [6]
Archaeologists and Scientists of Molecular genetics paleontology had discovered Caucasoid racial characteristics (HV genes) from DNA which extracted from bones in ancient tombs of Linzi in Shandong; and archaeological sites of Da Wen Kou in Shandong (about 6000 years ago); and archaeological sites of Beizhuang in Changdao, Shandong(about 6500 years ago).
Guo Mo-Rue discovered that Dong-Yi ethnic groups (during the period of Da Wen Kou culture) had luxuriant facial whiskers and beards, bushy body hairs, aquiline nose, thereby bearing some resemblance to the Caucasoid race in appearance.
Many Shandong Neolithic archaeological sites had discovered the bodies of tall Dong-Yi people. Such as: Gu Cheng Ding in Qingdao (3000 years ago), with individuals as about 1.8 and 1.9 meters tall; Liang Wang Cheng of Pi Zhou in Jiangsu Province (5000 years ago), more than 1.8 meters tall; Bei Qian village of Jimo in Shandong Peninsula (6000 years ago), 2 meters.
A co-study made by Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shandong Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and Laboratory for Molecular Anthropology and Molecular Evolution, Division of Anthropology, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Tokyo. Inconsistent with the geographical distribution, the 2,500-year-old Linzi population showed greater genetic similarity to present-day European populations than to present-day East Asian populations. The 2,000-yearold Linzi population had features that were intermediate between the present-day European as compared to the over 2,500-year-old Linzi populations and the present-day East Asian populations. [7]
Scientific research indicated incontestably that local residents in Shandong Peninsula where Confucian originated had Caucasoid race characteristics since the Neolithic Age until late spring and Autumn Period (770-476BCE).
Since Han Dynasty (202BCE-220ACE), the members of the ethnic majority in China, the "people of Han (Han Race)" were named.
In China history, Emperors had encouraged large-scale migration, and as a result, there were more people married to others with different ethnic groups.
After the Sui Dynasty (581-618ACE) and Tang Dynasty (618-907ACE), the Han Race had on average far more Mongolian racial characteristics.
5.2 Many Shandong historical Celebrities had Caucasoid racialcharacteristics
According to historical records, Confucius (551-479BCE) had clear Caucasoid race characteristics:
(1) Very tall (over 2.2 meters);
‘The Records of the Grand Historian’ said:Confucius was nine Chi and six Cun (1Chi= about 23.2cm), everyone thought he was different and called him the tall man. (In Chinese <史记.孔子世家> 孔子长九尺六寸, 人皆谓之长人而异之.)
(2) Enhanced strength;
‘LieZi’ said: Confucius had enhanced physical strength, could lift the sluice of city. (In Chinese <列子.说符> 孔子之劲, 能拓(举起)国门之关.)
(3)High forehead;
‘Zhuang Zi’ said: his upper body was longer than his lower body; he was humpbacked; his ears could be seen from back.
‘Kong Zi Jia Yu’ said: his eyes were like rivers; his forehead was high; his head looked like Yao; his neck looked like Gao Tao; his shoulders looked like Zi Chan; his lower body was three Cun shorter than Yu. (In Chinese <庄子.外物> 修上而趋下,末偻而后耳,视若营四海。<孔子家语.困誓>长九尺有六寸, 河目隆颡, 其头似尧, 其颈似皋陶, 其肩似子产, 然自腰以下不及禹者三寸, 累然如丧家之犬.)
According to ‘The Records of the Grand Historian’, Emperor Gaozu of Han: Liu Bang (256-195BCE) had a high nose, high forehead, high brow-bone, significant facial whiskers and a beard; bearing some resemblance to the Caucasoid race in general appearance. (In Chinese: <史记高祖本纪>高祖为人,隆准而龙颜,美须髯).
The country Qi eliminated the "Lai" region/ kingdom completely in 567BCE. The Lai King was killed; the Lai capital was burned; also the Lai culture was destroyed; In addition the Lai people were moved to Ni County (called today Teng Zhou of Shandong).Also the historicalFeng County of Jiangsu Province where Liu Bang was born and Pei county of Jiangsu where Liu Bang lived afterwards were only 25-30km from Ni County. There were many Dong-Yi people in Feng County and Pei County at Liu Bang’s time. (Liu Bang’s mother possibly came from the Dong-Yi ethnic groups).
6 The integration and hostilities between Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups and other older Ethnic Groups in Neolithic China
6.1 The Integration between Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups and other older Ethnic Groups in Neolithic China
Dong-Yi ethnic groups had built friendly relations with other east China ethnic groups in their early history. This though did not last later dynastic conditions.
The Authors of ‘Shan Hai Jing’ were unknown , but they were from four history period: Da Yu (?- about 4200BCE, Descendant of Di-Jun) who wrote ‘Wu Zang Shan Jing’; Xia Dynasty (about 2070-1600BCE) who wrote ‘Hai Wai Si Jing’; Shang Dynasty (about1600-1046BCE) which established by the descendant of Qi ( Descendant of Di-Jun and Lady Jian-Di), they wrote ‘Da Huang Si Jing’; and Zhou Dynasty (1046- 256BCE) which established by Zhou Wen Wang, with the great supports by Di-Qiang ethnic groups and North Di ethnic groups, West Rong ethnic groups. They wrote ‘Hai Nei Wu Jing’. [12]
‘Shan Hai Jing’ recorded many of the oldest ethnic groups in Neolithic China, Di-Jun, Zhuan-Xu, Shao-Hao, Huang-Di, Yan-Di, etc. Before the Dong-Yi ethnic groups came to east China, Emperor Di-Jun ethnic groups and Emperor Shao Hao ethnic groups had already lived there.
In earlier records of ‘Shan Hai Jing’, Dong-Yi ethnic groups were regarded as a member of the larger family of ethnic groups inNeolithic China. ‘Shan Hai Jing’ recorded friendly relations between Di-Jun ethnic groups and Dong-Yi ethnic groups (who worshipped birds as their totems.) They invited Dong-Yi People to be their priests at their Sacrificial Altars.
‘Shan Hai Jing’ had many records of east bird’s totems. Di-Jun ethnic groups believed Dong-Yi ethnic groups could predict the weather or good and bad luck. They even regarded Dong-Yi ethnic groups as half human and half spirit.
Di-Jun ethnic groups got many benefits from learning from Doing-Yi culture. They learned Dong-Yi culture; inherited the general culture of the Dong-Yi and generally spreadDong-Yi culture. Later China Di-Qiang culture also had elements of Dong-Yi culture.
6.2 Dong-Yi Ethnic groups were regarded as an important minority by older China ethnic groups
Oracle inscriptions recorded that Shang King Wu Ding (1250-1192BCE) made military expeditions on the Yi, and King Di Xin (1075-1046BCE) waged a massive campaign against the Yifang. [8]
‘The Records of the Grand Historian’ recorded: “(during the early time of the Zhou Dynasty, Emperor Wumade Lu Shang the duke of Qi in Yingqiu”; “The Lai King fought with Lu Shang for Yingqiu”; “Because Zhou was just established, they could not have had a war in what was at the time frontier regions of the Zhou dynastic state;the Lai king fought with Lu Shang (Tai Gong) for territory of Qi”.(In Chinese :< 史记齐太公世家>周武王封师尚父子齐营丘 (今临淄地区)”; “莱侯来伐,与之争营丘”; “周初定,未能集远方,是以与太公争国”)
The last country of Dong-Yi ethnic groups was ancient “Lai" in the present Shandong Peninsula. Country Qi eliminated "Lai" completely in 567BCE. Lai culture was destroyed; Lai people were moved; Lai did not have the ability to make a country again.
Many historians agreed that Emperor Huang and Emperor Yan were not from the main ancestors of Han Chinese stock. As understood in China. It was Zhou Wen Wang who fabricated the stories of Emperor Huang and Yan for the political purposes of ruling all ethnic groups.
In early records of Shan Hai Jing, Huang-Di, Yan-Di, Zhuan-Xu, Di-Jun, Shao-Hao, and bird worshipped ethnic groups from east (Dong-Yi) were different ethnic groups. Together they became ancestors of China. Zhou Dynasty replenished Shan Hai Jing to one more part ‘Hai Nei Jing’. They fabricated the stories of Emperor Huang and Yan; and fabricated that Zhuang-Xu, Di-Jun, Shao-Hao were descendants of Huang and Yan. They kicked Dong-Yi ethnic groups out of the family of early China ethnic groups.
7 Dong-Yi culture had great contributions on the development of China Civilization
7.1 Dong-Yi Culture
Many Chinese scholars assert that the Dong-Yi lived in the Haidai (海岱) region, the lower reaches of the Yellow and Huai Rivers, from the Neolithic period. The Dong-Yi Neolithic culture correlated to five evolutionary phases.
Houli culture (6400-5700BCE): was a Neolithic culture in Shandong Peninsula. The type site at Houli was discovered in the Linzi District of Shandong and was excavated from 1989 to 1990.
Beixin culture (5300-4100BCE): was a Neolithic culture in Shandong Peninsula.The type site at Beixin was discovered in Tengzhou, Shandong. The site was excavated from 1978 to 1979.
Dawenkou culture (4100-2600BCE): was primarily in Shandong Peninsula, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, China. This type of site at Dawenkou, located in Tai'an, Shandong, was excavated in 1959, 1974 and 1978.
Longshan culture (3200-1900BCE): was a late Neolithic culture in China, centered on the central and lower Yellow River, including Shandong, Henan, and Shanxi, Shanxi. The Longshan culture was named after the town of Longshan in Jinan, Shandong was found (in 192 and excavated (in 1930 and 1931).
Yueshi culture (2000-1600BCE): It appeared in the same areas of Longshan culture.
7.2 Dong-Yi Culture was the most advanced culture in Neolithic China
(1) The writing system of Dong-Yi was one of the oldest writing systems in Neolithic China. It was an important source of the Shang Oracle bone script.
Some of the characterslike“旦、鉞 () 、斤、皇、封、酒、拍、昃” were still used in Chinese characters.
The discovery of Changle Bone Inscriptions which were found in Changle, Qingzhou, Shouguang, Huantai, Linzi and Zouping, belonged to Longshan culture and were regarded as recording characters in Neolithic China. They were about 1,000 years earlier thanShang Oracle bone script.[9]
(2) Dong-Yi ethnic groups were inventors of arrows. (Zuo Zhuan, Shuowen Jiezi had similar records about this).
(3) Dong-Yi ethnic groups had high skill in making pottery.
Eggshell black potteryin Longshan culture was believed to be the best work of Chinese ancient pottery.
(4) Dong-Yi ethnic groups were the earliest users of copper and iron in Neolithic China.
(5) The earliest human brain operationin Neolithic China was believed to be conducted about 5000 years ago in Guangrao of Shandong.
In an archaeological site of Da Wen Kou culture in Fujia, Guangrao of Shandong, an adult male skull was discovered to be recovered from the surgery and he lived for a long time before he died.
(6) Dong-Yi ethnic groups developed etiquette. A code of etiquette in Long Shan culture shows social stratification and formation of the nation.
7.3 The China Neolithic culture in East Shandong and West Shandong had differences.
Even most archaeologists and scientists regarded China Neolithic culture in Shandong Peninsula and east China as a big system called Dong-Yi culture. But Dawenkou- Longshan culture in east Shandong and west Shandong had major differences.
An article ‘Archaeological discoveries of Neolithic Age in Shandong Peninsula’ from Yantai Museum, had introduced details of the Neolithic culture in east Shandong and its differences with the also co existing Dawenkou-Longshan culture in west Shandong. [10]
Many scholars thought the Neolithic culture in east Shandong had its own special features and became an independent system; it came from its own resources. It was an independent culture. During the time of late Dawenkou culture and Longshan culture, Shandong and east China formed a large area of Dong-Yi system; the Neolithic culture in east Shandong still kept its own local features.
The reason that Neolithic culture in east Shandong was different with west Shandong was that the Dawenkou-Longshan culture in east Shandong came from its own sources: Dong-Yi ethnic groups; And the Dawenkou-Longshan culture in west Shandong came from mainly Dong-Yi ethnic groups and also Di-Jun and other ethnic groups.
8The movement of Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups
8.1 Dong-Yi ethnic groups spread out over China
The great changes of climate caused the large scale migrations of Dong-Yi ethnic groups in their early history. Dong-Yi ethnic groups moved to west and north when sea level rose, and slowly moved back when sea level was lower.
The sea level was 120 m lower at the peak of the last ice age, as of around 20,000 years ago.
After the ice sheets began to melt and retreat, the local sea level rose rapidly (Fairbanks 1989).
During the most rapid period of rise from about 18,000 to about 5,000 years ago, sea level rose nearly 120 meters (almost 400 feet). (From NASA) [3]
As of 6000 years ago, the sea level near Shandong Peninsula was 2-5meters higher than today’s present sea level. A lot of dry land of Shandong Peninsula was thereby under the sea.5500 years ago, so that the earlier sea level was 2-5 meters lower than present sea level. (From Zhao Xitao)[2]
An archaeological site in Beiqian, Qingdao of Shandong had discovered two cultures: Beiqian Dawenkou culture (6000 years ago) and West Zhou culture (2700 years ago). These two cultures did not have any connection; Beiqian Dawenkou culture suddenly disappeared.
It was the clear evidence that sea level rose 6000 year ago, Dong-Yi ethnic groups moved to other geographical places.
A very famous war recorded in Shan Hai Jing happened between Huang-Di ethnic group and Chi-You ethnic group which belonged to Dong-Yi ethnic groups. Chi-You asked Feng-Bo and Yu-Shi to make stormy conditions high wind and extreme rainfall. The yellow Emperor ordered the alleged Goddess named Ba (or) to stop the storm conditions and to kill Chi-You. (Ba was called Goddess, it believed at that time, the Yellow Emperor and Ba already died. In ancient China, people believed that in death all of the cultural and military leaders would go to heaven and became Gods and Goddesses.) (In Chinese<山海经.大荒北经>:蚩尤请风伯、雨师,纵大风雨。黄帝乃下天女曰(魃)[],雨止,遂杀蚩尤).
As of about 6000 years ago, while the sea level rising, general temperature levels rose too, there were many storms high winds and heavy rain fall. In the mist of this climatic disruptions, the Chi-You ethnic group who lived in Shandong Peninsula had to move, Huang-Di ethnic group did not wish Chi-You ethnic group to come to their places, they also believed that Chi-You ethnic group brought the perceived bad luck via the fierce storms, great wind and heavy rain fall. They fought with the Chi-You ethnic group and eliminated it.
Afterwards, the Dong-Yi ethnic groups moved to North America and south-east China, and Polynesia and New Zealand. They became the ancestors of the prehistory American Indians (Amerind) and Polynesian people.
After the Shang Dynasty, and the losers in several wars, Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups were forced leave their territories and move to other places.
Most Dong-Yi people were killed after the last country of the Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups which called “Lai” was eliminated completely by Qi in 567BC. The left Lai people were moved to Ni County (Teng Zhou of Shandong) (There was a village named Lai village), after Lai King was killed; Lai capital was burned; Lai culture was destroyed.
Then Lai people became Qi people.
Another famous ancient country Yue State (?-306BCE) had ever annexed to south-east Shandong Peninsula. Some ancestors of prehistory Yue people were from Yu-Yi ethnic groups which belonged to Dong-Yi ethnic groups. Dong-Yi people spread to South China.
After Qin Shi Huang eliminated all other states including Qi (221BCE), Yue (222BCE), Dong-Yi people became Qin people. They were often forced to join army because of their healthy, tall and enhanced strength.
Qin Shi Huang continued military expansion in the south during his reign, with various regions being annexed to what is now Guangdong province and part of today's Vietnam. Some soldiers from Dong-Yi ethnic groups settled down in the south and married with local women.
Since the time of the Han Dynasty (202BCE-220ACE), the members of the ethnic majority in China, the "people of Han (Han Race)" were named. Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups slowly lost their pronounced Caucasoid racial characteristics after they inter married with other ethnic groups.
Scientific research indicated incontestably that local residents in Shandong Peninsula where Confucian originated had Caucasoid race characteristics since the Neolithic Age until late spring and Autumn Period (770-476BCE). After Sui Dynasty (581-618ACE) and Tang Dynasty (618-907ACE), Han Race had more Mongolian racial characteristics.
8.2 Prehistory American Indians (Amerind) were hybridization of Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups and the Mongoloid race.
There were several waves of migrations from Asia to America. Early migration happened before 10000 years ago.
Some scientists believed that Dong-Yi ethnic groups had gone across the Bering Strait, and spread out over America. Some scientists believed that Dong-Yi ethnic groups went to South Korea, to Japan, to the Kuril Islands, to The Kamchatka Peninsula, to Aleutian Islands, then to North America during the low sea level period. Sea level rising and volcanic eruptions in Aleutian Islands might have destroyed most archaeological remains. 11500 years ago, most parts of Bohai Sea was land; sea level was 40 meters lower than present sea level. Other scientists also argued that Amerind came from East Asia by ships.
Stud Ying prehistoric human-face petroglyphs of the North Pacific Region, Song Yaoliang discovered that north-west American, Aleutian had shown similar religion culture with Dawenkou culture of Dong-Yi ethnic groups. [13] 4000 years ago, another large-scale migration from Dong-Yi ethnic groups brought prehistoric human-face petroglyphs to America.
Prehistoric Amerind initially were first located in the North part of North America. The temperature in the northern part of Neolithic North America was not suitable for cultivation of wheat and barley; the Prehistoric Amerind did not have any wheat and barley cultivation culture which was initially from the Dong-Yi ethnic groups; they, the Amerind instead cultivated other food instead of wheat and barley.
Most scientists, historians and archaeologists agreed that Amerinds came from Asia. DC Wallace was one of them. He examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation in 87 Amerinds (Pima, Maya, and Ticuna of north, central, and south America, respectively), 80 Nadene (Dogrib and Tlingit of north-west North America and Navajo of the south-west North America), and 153 Asians from 7 diverse populations. Amerind mtDNAs were found to be directly descended from five founding Asian mtDNAs and to cluster into four lineages, each characterized by a different rare Asian mtDNA marker.
The results demonstrated that the Amerind mtDNAs arose from one or maybe two Asian migrations that were distinct from the migration of the Nadene and that the Amerind populations are about four times older than the Nadene. [14]

Some prehistoric Amerind were Caucasian from Shem; they were very tall, same as the Dong-Yi ethnic groups. The 8,400 year-old Kennewick Man discovered in 1996 in Washington State was thought by many to be Caucasian but, in that scientists were unable to retrieve DNA for analysis, by default it was determined by the Secretary of the Interior that he was an 'American Indian'.
While apparently most ancient people were smaller than the people living today, diet perhaps being the main reason, it has been determined some prehistoric Amerind were six foot (180cm) tall. Same as the Dong-Yi
Amerind totem poles were not real totems, but only records of stories. Prehistoric Amerind worshipped bird’s totems, same as Dong-Yi ethnic groups.
In 1987, several bird-shaped artifacts were found not yet associated with any known civilization; they were possibly the original totems of the prehistoric Amerind.
Bird stones were prehistoric, abstract stone carvings made by Amerind. The artifacts were a common inclusion in graves and thought to have ceremonial importance. Bird stones were possibly because of bird worshipped culture.
Feather War bonnets were the best-known type of Amerind headdress. The Aztec and Highland Maya Amerinds of Mexico were also famous for their feather headdresses. [15]
Feather War bonnets came from bird worshipping history. Dong-Yi ethnic groups also had the same culture to dress with feathers. ‘Shan Hai Jin’ recorded that Dong-Yi people were priests at Di-Jun ethnic groups’ Sacrificial Altars. Theydressed up like birds bearing five colors, rotating and dancing.
8.3 Prehistory Polynesian people were hybridization of Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups and other races
There were several waves of migrations from Asia to Polynesia. Dong-Yi ethnic groups might mix with different races on their long journeys to Polynesia.
Dong-Yi ethnic groups were ancestors of Polynesian people first migrated from Shandong Peninsula to south-east China; to Taiwan; to the Philippines and Indonesia, then to west Polynesia and east Polynesia, and then to New Zealand.
Some opinions agreed Polynesian people came from south-east Asia mainland to sometime around 6,000 years ago.
Before Scientists could find more evidences, we could imagine about how Dong-Yi ethnic groups migrated to Polynesia and New Zealand.
Some Dong-Yi people went to south from Shandong Peninsula, They walked along Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian; some of them went to Taiwan; some of them continued their journey to Guangzhou, Guangxi, Hainan, south Asia, to Malaysia, Indonesia, then to Polynesia and New Zealand.
It is believed that native Taiwanese were from ancient Yue State (?-306BCE) which had ever annexed to south-east Shandong Peninsula. Even Taiwan and south Asia had some same ancestors from Dong-Yi ethnic groups, but in their later history, they mixed with different racial groups. Some research from Y chromosome found that aboriginal Taiwanese carried distinctly different genetic markers than eastern Pacific Polynesians or southwestern Pacific Micronesians.
Southerton, now a senior researcher with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization in Canberra, Australia, had concluded along with many other scientists studying mitochondrial DNA lines that American Indians and Polynesians were of Asian extraction.
A study led by Dr. Geoffrey Chambers of Victoria University concluded that the ancestors of Polynesian people first migrated from Taiwan and China to the Philippines and Indonesia, then to west Polynesia and east Polynesia, and then to New Zealand. Chambers analyzed DNA data that had originally been collected for a study on genetics and alcoholism.
Another recent genetics project was led by University of Hawai‘i scientist Rebecca Cann. Cann’s study analyzed mitochondrial DNA, unlike the Victoria University study, which used nuclear DNA. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother.
Analyzing hair samples gathered from people all around the Pacific, the researchers concluded that there are three main subgroups of Polynesians. Interestingly, this genetic marker that distinguished the Polynesian sub-groups was also found in some Native Americans.
Cann’s genetic study traced the Polynesian expansion from the south-east Asia mainland to sometime around 6,000 years ago. Cann theorizes that there were several waves of migrations from Asia, and that Micronesia was settled after Polynesia, contrary to what most anthropologists have claimed.
A research project at the University of Texas Health Science Centre studied the Y chromosomes of 551 men from south-east Asia and the Pacific. The Y chromosome is passed only from fathers to sons, and so it is specific to males (unlike the mitochondrial DNA in the previous study).
This University of Texas research found that aboriginal Taiwanese carried distinctly different genetic markers than eastern Pacific Polynesians or southwestern Pacific Micronesians.
The Texas study also found that the Micronesians/Polynesians were more closely related to south-east Asians than Taiwanese. These findings cast doubt on the previous reigning theory that Taiwan was the ancestral origin of Polynesians. The history of Polynesian migration will become clearer as new genetic analysis techniques are refined. [16]
Polynesians also had birds worshipping totems same with Amerind and Dong-Yi ethnic groups. Feather cloaks in the Polynesian area were well known in New Zealand and Hawaii. Feather cloak was worn only by the leader of a special group of mourners during the obsequies following the death of a sovereign or an heir apparent. The number of chief mourners' dresses must have been limited in manufacture as only one was required for each royal funeral. Dong-Yi Priests worn feathers, rotating and dancing, were similar to Polynesians.
9 Conclusions
Our manuscript has presented what the Dong-Yi contributed to human civilization, including the dawn of Bronze Age China, Polynesia and North America. [18]. We hope that this presentation will enable a discussion as to the foundations of pre history due to this over looked ethnic group.
Even as the Dong-Yi Ethnic Groups built one of the most important Neolithic cultures – Dong-Yi culture which had greatly influenced ancient China; and they built friendly relations with other older Chinese ethnic groups in their early history. However later on, the Dong-Yi became the mainadversaries and combatants of both the Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty. The last country of Dong-Yi ethnic groups was ancient Lai in Shandong Peninsula. Lai was eliminated completely by Qi in 567BCE.
We hope that our work will initiate an inquiry as to the role of pre historical migrations and more, to how the Dong-Yi lead to the rise of cultures in China, Polynesia, and N. America, with a new view as to how civilizations arose in these three areas.I.e. As summarized as following:
Dong-Yi civilizations arose in the Shandong Peninsula of China (Land of East End of the Earth); and they moved to lands of the other three ends of the Earth since the Neolithic Age: The Westernmost Place in West America; The Southernmost Place in Australia and New Zealand; The Northernmost Place near the Arctic Circle.[18]
We hope that our presentation sheds new light on this important ethnic group which played a decisive role in the development of human societies worldwide. This manuscript is a step in that direction.
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